3 Types of Leadership: What Kind of a Leader are You?

accomplishment-achievement-adult-1059120

The German sociologist Max Weber identified three ideal types of leadership in which authority may rest: (1) charismatic, (2) traditional, and (3) rational-legal. In any society or institution, the power of the leader may be exercised on the basis of a mixture of these 3 types of leadership.

  1. Charismatic Leadership

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Charismatic Leadership is founded on the personal traits and gifts of the leader. The more  authentic these personal traits are as perceived by the people, the higher is the legitimacy of the leader. People obey the leader, not primarily because of certain laws or traditions, but because of his/her personal talents. Because it is a personalized form of authority, charismatic leadership tends to be unstable. It does not normally survive after the death of the original leader, and it often abandons the leader while he or she is alive. Charismatic leaders in history include  Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, St. Francis of Asisi, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, etc.

In  corporate settings, charismatic leaders like Steve Jobs, Jack Ma, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, to name a few, are creative, innovative, and visionary people. They have extraordinary talents that ordinary managers do not possess. They usually introduce innovation, creativity, or unique management style in their business environments.

         2. Traditional authority

pexels-photo-618613.jpeg

Traditional leadership is one that is based on some sort of tradition that is handed down from the past. The leader is obeyed by the people as a legitimate leader because of a formal or informal norm handed down by great leaders or managers from the past. This kind of leadership is based on customs and traditions of the business firms.  The leader is not usually innovative but conservative. He or she is just continuing what is being practiced by the company based on tradition.

      The ordination of a priest by a bishop is an example of traditional authority. The new priest received his power and authority by way of tradition, and people obey him as a legitimate spiritual pastor of the Church. Succession in monarchy is also done through traditional authority. Tradition dictates that only persons with royal blood can ascend to the throne.

           3. Rational-Legal Leadership

pexels-photo-275496.jpeg

         The last type of leadership proposed by Max Weber is the most common type of authority in modern and contemporary society. This leadership is based on a set of rules, and the belief in the legitimacy of the process of rule creation and enforcement. This form of domination is routinized through bureaucracy. The leader assumes the right to exercise power over the people because the law says so.

        The leader’s authority is held by legally established impersonal orders and extends to people only by virtue of the offices they hold. The power of government officials, for instance, is determined by the offices to which they are appointed or elected because of their individual qualifications. As long as individuals hold these offices, they have a certain amount of power. But once they leave office, their rational-legal authority is also lost.  Though personal traits also count in the selection process, a fixed law becomes the primary legitimizer of the leader’s capacity to exercise leadership. His authority expires when he retires or becomes incapacitated as stipulated by law.

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

What kind of a leader are you? Which type of leadership do you aim to achieve?

Thanks for reading this post. Sign up with our newsletter or follow this blog via email for more updates.

3 Types of Leadership: What Kind of a Leader are You?

accomplishment-achievement-adult-1059120

The German sociologist Max Weber identified three ideal types of leadership in which authority may rest: (1) charismatic, (2) traditional, and (3) rational-legal. In any society or institution, the power of the leader may be exercised on the basis of a mixture of these 3 types of leadership.

  1. Charismatic Leadership

adult-beard-blur-927022

 

Charismatic Leadership is founded on the personal traits and gifts of the leader. The more  authentic these personal traits are as perceived by the people, the higher is the legitimacy of the leader. People obey the leader, not primarily because of certain laws or traditions, but because of his/her personal talents. Because it is a personalized form of authority, charismatic leadership tends to be unstable. It does not normally survive after the death of the original leader, and it often abandons the leader while he or she is alive. Charismatic leaders in history include  Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, St. Francis of Asisi, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, etc.

In  corporate settings, charismatic leaders like Steve Jobs, Jack Ma, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, to name a few, are creative, innovative, and visionary people. They have extraordinary talents that ordinary managers do not possess. They usually introduce innovation, creativity, or unique management style in their business environments.

         2. Traditional authority

pexels-photo-618613.jpeg

Traditional leadership is one that is based on some sort of tradition that is handed down from the past. The leader is obeyed by the people as a legitimate leader because of a formal or informal norm handed down by great leaders or managers from the past. This kind of leadership is based on customs and traditions of the business firms.  The leader is not usually innovative but conservative. He or she is just continuing what is being practiced by the company based on tradition.

      The ordination of a priest by a bishop is an example of traditional authority. The new priest received his power and authority by way of tradition, and people obey him as a legitimate spiritual pastor of the Church. Succession in monarchy is also done through traditional authority. Tradition dictates that only persons with royal blood can ascend to the throne.

           3. Rational-Legal Leadership

pexels-photo-275496.jpeg

         The last type of leadership proposed by Max Weber is the most common type of authority in modern and contemporary society. This leadership is based on a set of rules, and the belief in the legitimacy of the process of rule creation and enforcement. This form of domination is routinized through bureaucracy. The leader assumes the right to exercise power over the people because the law says so.

        The leader’s authority is held by legally established impersonal orders and extends to people only by virtue of the offices they hold. The power of government officials, for instance, is determined by the offices to which they are appointed or elected because of their individual qualifications. As long as individuals hold these offices, they have a certain amount of power. But once they leave office, their rational-legal authority is also lost.  Though personal traits also count in the selection process, a fixed law becomes the primary legitimizer of the leader’s capacity to exercise leadership. His authority expires when he retires or becomes incapacitated as stipulated by law.

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

What kind of a leader are you? Which type of leadership do you aim to achieve?

Thanks for reading this post. Sign up with our newsletter or follow this blog via email for more updates.

3 Types of Leadership: What Kind of a Leader are You?

accomplishment-achievement-adult-1059120

The German sociologist Max Weber identified three ideal types of leadership in which authority may rest: (1) charismatic, (2) traditional, and (3) rational-legal. In any society or institution, the power of the leader may be exercised on the basis of a mixture of these 3 types of leadership.

  1. Charismatic Leadership

adult-beard-blur-927022

 

Charismatic Leadership is founded on the personal traits and gifts of the leader. The more  authentic these personal traits are as perceived by the people, the higher is the legitimacy of the leader. People obey the leader, not primarily because of certain laws or traditions, but because of his/her personal talents. Because it is a personalized form of authority, charismatic leadership tends to be unstable. It does not normally survive after the death of the original leader, and it often abandons the leader while he or she is alive. Charismatic leaders in history include  Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, St. Francis of Asisi, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, etc.

In  corporate settings, charismatic leaders like Steve Jobs, Jack Ma, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, to name a few, are creative, innovative, and visionary people. They have extraordinary talents that ordinary managers do not possess. They usually introduce innovation, creativity, or unique management style in their business environments.

         2. Traditional authority

pexels-photo-618613.jpeg

Traditional leadership is one that is based on some sort of tradition that is handed down from the past. The leader is obeyed by the people as a legitimate leader because of a formal or informal norm handed down by great leaders or managers from the past. This kind of leadership is based on customs and traditions of the business firms.  The leader is not usually innovative but conservative. He or she is just continuing what is being practiced by the company based on tradition.

      The ordination of a priest by a bishop is an example of traditional authority. The new priest received his power and authority by way of tradition, and people obey him as a legitimate spiritual pastor of the Church. Succession in monarchy is also done through traditional authority. Tradition dictates that only persons with royal blood can ascend to the throne.

           3. Rational-Legal Leadership

pexels-photo-275496.jpeg

         The last type of leadership proposed by Max Weber is the most common type of authority in modern and contemporary society. This leadership is based on a set of rules, and the belief in the legitimacy of the process of rule creation and enforcement. This form of domination is routinized through bureaucracy. The leader assumes the right to exercise power over the people because the law says so.

        The leader’s authority is held by legally established impersonal orders and extends to people only by virtue of the offices they hold. The power of government officials, for instance, is determined by the offices to which they are appointed or elected because of their individual qualifications. As long as individuals hold these offices, they have a certain amount of power. But once they leave office, their rational-legal authority is also lost.  Though personal traits also count in the selection process, a fixed law becomes the primary legitimizer of the leader’s capacity to exercise leadership. His authority expires when he retires or becomes incapacitated as stipulated by law.

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

What kind of a leader are you? Which type of leadership do you aim to achieve?

Thanks for reading this post. Sign up with our newsletter or follow this blog via email for more updates.

3 Types of Leadership: What Kind of a Leader are You?

accomplishment-achievement-adult-1059120

The German sociologist Max Weber identified three ideal types of leadership in which authority may rest: (1) charismatic, (2) traditional, and (3) rational-legal. In any society or institution, the power of the leader may be exercised on the basis of a mixture of these 3 types of leadership.

  1. Charismatic Leadership

adult-beard-blur-927022

 

Charismatic Leadership is founded on the personal traits and gifts of the leader. The more  authentic these personal traits are as perceived by the people, the higher is the legitimacy of the leader. People obey the leader, not primarily because of certain laws or traditions, but because of his/her personal talents. Because it is a personalized form of authority, charismatic leadership tends to be unstable. It does not normally survive after the death of the original leader, and it often abandons the leader while he or she is alive. Charismatic leaders in history include  Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, St. Francis of Asisi, Mother Teresa of Calcutta, etc.

In  corporate settings, charismatic leaders like Steve Jobs, Jack Ma, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, to name a few, are creative, innovative, and visionary people. They have extraordinary talents that ordinary managers do not possess. They usually introduce innovation, creativity, or unique management style in their business environments.

         2. Traditional authority

pexels-photo-618613.jpeg

Traditional leadership is one that is based on some sort of tradition that is handed down from the past. The leader is obeyed by the people as a legitimate leader because of a formal or informal norm handed down by great leaders or managers from the past. This kind of leadership is based on customs and traditions of the business firms.  The leader is not usually innovative but conservative. He or she is just continuing what is being practiced by the company based on tradition.

      The ordination of a priest by a bishop is an example of traditional authority. The new priest received his power and authority by way of tradition, and people obey him as a legitimate spiritual pastor of the Church. Succession in monarchy is also done through traditional authority. Tradition dictates that only persons with royal blood can ascend to the throne.

           3. Rational-Legal Leadership

pexels-photo-275496.jpeg

         The last type of leadership proposed by Max Weber is the most common type of authority in modern and contemporary society. This leadership is based on a set of rules, and the belief in the legitimacy of the process of rule creation and enforcement. This form of domination is routinized through bureaucracy. The leader assumes the right to exercise power over the people because the law says so.

        The leader’s authority is held by legally established impersonal orders and extends to people only by virtue of the offices they hold. The power of government officials, for instance, is determined by the offices to which they are appointed or elected because of their individual qualifications. As long as individuals hold these offices, they have a certain amount of power. But once they leave office, their rational-legal authority is also lost.  Though personal traits also count in the selection process, a fixed law becomes the primary legitimizer of the leader’s capacity to exercise leadership. His authority expires when he retires or becomes incapacitated as stipulated by law.

Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

What kind of a leader are you? Which type of leadership do you aim to achieve?

Thanks for reading this post. Sign up with our newsletter or follow this blog via email for more updates.

Leadership in the Social Media: The Sociology of Followers

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To Expand or Not to Expand Connections

Users of social media often face the perennial issue of whether to add too many followers and connections or just maintain a few close business and professional connections in their accounts. On LinkedIn, your direct connections are also your followers. LinkedIn users with numerous connections and followers are usually honored by the network as thought leaders and influencers. On Facebook, your followers are your friends. On Twitter and other social media sites, your followers are those who follow you regardless of whether you follow them back or not. But aside from posting quality articles to attract many followers, there is no other effective way to expand one’s network except to send or accept invites. But how can one becomes an influencer if s/he is encouraged to just remain closely connected with his/her limited number of connections (around 500 on LinkedIn), discouraged to connect with the unfamiliar others or become open networkers (LIONs) or to go beyond the maximum limit of connections and friends? (e.g. 30,000 on LinkedIn or 5,000 friends on Facebook). Which is which: to limit one’s connections to maintain intimacy within the social network and to limit his/her social influence? Or expand one’s network to expand his/her social influence and to lessen his/her group intimacy in the network?

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The Dilemma

Users face a dilemma with regard to the ideal number of connections and followers in the social media. To gain too many connections and followers implies lesser time for the user to interact closely with each member the social network: The higher is the number of followers, the lesser is his/her available time to spend quality time with all of them in the social network. But If the user does not accept too many connections and followers, especially those who are unfamiliar or strangers to him/her in order to maintain a strong bonding in the network, s/he limits his/her range of social influence and possibility to connect with the right people who might help him/her in his/her business or professional career. Thus, a recruiter who connects only with people whom s/he personally knows in real or digital life is incapacitated to meet new people and connect with the right applicants who can fill up his/her wanted list. Moreover, a limited number of connections, friends or followers in the social media implies low social impact which can make one’s profile less attractive to people and to the business world.

The Sociological Significance of Connections and Followers

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There is a sociological basis why having many connections and followers is desirable than having only a few. There is a grain of truth to the idea that the number of followers or connection is the user’s “social” net worth in the social media and status scale. Sir Richard Branson who has more than 6 million followers on LinkedIn is obviously has a higher social net worth than anyone else in the world’s largest professional and business social networking site. Please take note that we are talking here of “social” not economic or monetary net worth which is the main criteria being used in identifying the richest people in the world. Some top influencers such as Branson or Gates, possess both a high social class (wealth) and social status (prestige). But there are others who are not be very rich and yet very high in social status because of their unique skills, level of achievement and high number of connections and followers in the social media Thus, a user with only 100 connections is obviously lesser in social status compared to somebody with 5,000 followers or more. The indicator of social class is primarily wealth, property and monetary net worth while social status is the person’s credential and level of prestige. In social media especially in LinkedIn where every user is presumed to belong to the middle or upper social classes, social status based on the user’s prestige (as reflected in the profile), popularity and number of connection and followers can be a strong differentiating factor among social media users.

The Power of Connection and Followers

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The power of having more connections and followers can be felt directly by the user through the power of his/her invites: The higher is his/her number connections and followers, the more powerful is his/her invites in the social media. The acceptance rate of his/her invites is directly correlated with his/her number of connections and followers: the higher is the number of followers, the higher is the rate of acceptance of the invites. Having more followers and connections can also have a bandwagon effect: Who can resist connecting with popular accounts in case they invite you? Can you turn down an invitation, for instance, if Richard Branson, President Obama, Guy Kawasaki or other influencers ask you to connect on LinkedIn? Being connected with someone with a big following has an advantage to the one who is invited. If that person mentions you in their posts and updates or likes or comments in your posts or updates, his/her thousands of followers can view them and see your profile picture and headline as well, thus expanding your personal brand.

Resolving the Dilemma: Maintain Bonding with Close Friends/Connections but Expand Network

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There is a third way to resolve the dilemma of whether to gain more followers or not:in the social media: Maintain and expand gradually one’s small group of intimate connections within one’s social network but continue to expand the number of connections and followers to increase social status and influence. Sociologically speaking, it is humanly impossible to maintain intimacy if one’s group or network is huge. In real life, when a person’s primary group increases in membership and becomes a secondary group, his/her personal bonding and intimacy with it declines, but his/her social status and influence in society climbs. And this is also true in online interaction in the social media.The increase of membership in a social network can decrease the level of intimacy between the user and all his/her followers. But it has an advantage. It also increases his/her social influence and marketability in the digital economy.

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In sum, there is really no serious problem between maintaining social bonding with a few close connections and expanding one’s social network in the social media. Indeed, life, whether real or virtual, is full of contradictions and paradoxes; one just needs to be creative, empirical and innovative in his/her journey in the world of the social media!

Photo Credit:Pixabay.com
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Peace Leadership: Trump-Kim Summit in Singapore

What is Peace?

Peace is a relative term for sociologists. It can mean different things to various peoples with distinct cultures. People agree little on what is peace. Perhaps the most popular (Western) view of peace is an absence of dissension, violence, or war, a meaning found in the New Testament and possibly an original meaning of the Greek word for peace, Irene.

Peace as absence of conflict is widely adopted by people called “pacifists” who assume that all violence is bad. This meaning is widely accepted among students of international relations. It is also the primary dictionary definition.

In oriental or Asian cultures, peace is generally seen as a harmony and tranquility. It is viewed as peace of mind or serenity. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, and a balance  powers. The oriental or Eastern concept of peace is deeper than the Western notion. Peace is beyond absence of war but harmony and good will with neighbors who are perceived as true friends.

The Western and Eastern Concepts of Peace

When the US President Donald Trump met the North Korean President Kim Jung Un, the concept of peace became hybrid: The Western concept of peace as absence of conflict merged with its Eastern view as harmony and tranquility. Although the agreement that Trump and Kim signed in Singapore was just a framework, hopes are high that in the days to come the denuclearization of North Korea would take place and sanctions by the United States would be lifted. Thousands or probably millions of North Koreans would probably then experience a relief from poverty and global pressure, as well experience economic development in the the coming years with the lifting of the sanctions.

Other nations such as Japan, South Korea, and neighboring ASEAN countries  and whole world would also benefit from this peace agreement between the United States and North Korea.

The Other Name of Peace is Development

From a Christian and Catholic perspective, peace in today’s global era is not just an absence of conflict between nations but also economic development. Nations must not only avoid conflict and war, but also help one another in the spirit of charity to achieve economic development and global solidarity.  The late Pope Paul VI wrote a beautiful social encyclical on peace and development. The title of the document “Pacem in Terris” which means “peace on earth” provides the basic Christian principles on attaining global and societal peace:

peace

Source: social-spirituality.net

peace2

With the summit of Trump and Kim Jung Un, it is hoped that the world is closer to the lasting peace and global stability. Citizens and Christian around the globe hope and pray that this summit would become a stepping stone for global peace and development!

Source: slideshare.net

Thank for reading this post. Follow this blog via email for more updates.

Photo Credit:

Reference

Rummel, R.J. (n.d.). “What is Peace”. In Chapter 2, Understanding Conflict and War: Vol. 5: The Just War. Retrieved from https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/TJP.CHAP2.HTM.

Fatherhood is Leadership

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Leadership begins at home. How our father brought us up at home can influence our own style of leadership.Our first lesson of leadership comes from our own father. But we have to remember that fatherhood is a social construct and not an inborn trait. So any person performing a paternal role is a father. Our first lesson can come from our single parent Mom who also acts a “father” in the absence of a biological dad. Any member of the LGBT can also act as a “father” if s/he adopted a child. Whatever is the gender of our fathers, it is from them we learn how to lead and care for people.

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From birth up to adolescence, the father’s influence to their children is crucial as social scientists consider this period as the formative years of the child. Whatever the child learns on the basics of leadership, if there are any, is very significant social learning the child can bring as he or she grows up to adulthood.

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What kind of a leader you are now is largely influenced by your parents, especially the father, raised you up on how to deal with people. The peer group too plays a significant influence when the child reaches the adolescent period. This formative period or primary socialization can mold a person’s mind concerning leadership. Of course, the formal education of the person in school is also an important factor to his or her leadership formation.

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In patriarchal society, the role of the father is actually a leadership role. Under this social structure, the father is the head of the household, the breadwinner, and political leader of the family. So becoming a father is actually becoming a leader, albeit only in the limited sphere of the household. But whatever the father does in his own family can also be projected to his employees and subordinates in his business firm, if he performs some managerial roles. So it’s crucial that the father must be a benevolent and effective manager and leader to his own home in order that he can also consciously or unconsciously become the effective and generous manager or CEO of his firm. In other words, he must practice what he preached as a leader, starting with his own home management!

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Fatherhood is not an inborn trait. Sociologists believe that fatherhood is a social construct. It can be learned. So the defects of one’s upbringing due to a “bad” father can be remedied through proper education and influence of good people.

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Photo Credit: Pixabay.com

Thank you for reading this post. Follow this blog via email for more updates.

Peace Leadership: Trump-Kim Summit in Singapore

What is Peace?

Peace is a relative term for sociologists. It can mean different things to various peoples with distinct cultures. People agree little on what is peace. Perhaps the most popular (Western) view of peace is an absence of dissension, violence, or war, a meaning found in the New Testament and possibly an original meaning of the Greek word for peace, Irene.

Peace as absence of conflict is widely adopted by people called “pacifists” who assume that all violence is bad. This meaning is widely accepted among students of international relations. It is also the primary dictionary definition.

In oriental or Asian cultures, peace is generally seen as a harmony and tranquility. It is viewed as peace of mind or serenity. It is defined as a state of law or civil government, a state of justice or goodness, and a balance  powers. The oriental or Eastern concept of peace is deeper than the Western notion. Peace is beyond absence of war but harmony and good will with neighbors who are perceived as true friends.

The Western and Eastern Concepts of Peace

When the US President Donald Trump met the North Korean President Kim Jung Un, the concept of peace became hybrid: The Western concept of peace as absence of conflict merged with its Eastern view as harmony and tranquility. Although the agreement that Trump and Kim signed in Singapore was just a framework, hopes are high that in the days to come the denuclearization of North Korea would take place and sanctions by the United States would be lifted. Thousands or probably millions of North Koreans would probably then experience a relief from poverty and global pressure, as well experience economic development in the the coming years with the lifting of the sanctions.

Other nations such as Japan, South Korea, and neighboring ASEAN countries  and whole world would also benefit from this peace agreement between the United States and North Korea.

The Other Name of Peace is Development

From a Christian and Catholic perspective, peace in today’s global era is not just an absence of conflict between nations but also economic development. Nations must not only avoid conflict and war, but also help one another in the spirit of charity to achieve economic development and global solidarity.  The late Pope Paul VI wrote a beautiful social encyclical on peace and development. The title of the document “Pacem in Terris” which means “peace on earth” provides the basic Christian principles on attaining global and societal peace:

peace

Source: social-spirituality.net

peace2

With the summit of Trump and Kim Jung Un, it is hoped that the world is closer to the lasting peace and global stability. Citizens and Christian around the globe hope and pray that this summit would become a stepping stone for global peace and development!

Source: slideshare.net

Thank for reading this post. Follow this blog via email for more updates.

Photo Credit:

Reference

Rummel, R.J. (n.d.). “What is Peace”. In Chapter 2, Understanding Conflict and War: Vol. 5: The Just War. Retrieved from https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/TJP.CHAP2.HTM.